In regards to Point No. 2, Fr. Paul Kramer has demonstrated in Volume I of To Deceive the Elect that the position that a true pope can fall into formal heresy is proximate to heresy. With those who have eyes to see and ears to hear, it is evident that Jorge Bergoglio is a formal heretic. His formal heresy is post factum (after his election to the “papacy”) evidence that he cannot be a true pope.